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Bacteriological studies of pathogenic microflora in respiratory diseases
Annotation: The main task of microbiological study of pulmonary patients is to identify the etiology of acute and exacerbation of chronic disease in order to determine therapy and control its effectiveness. Classical methods of microbiological research consist in isolating a pure culture of the causative agent of the disease with its identification by biochemical, antigenic and other characteristics. Such studies are multistage; they impose rather strict requirements on the quality of the source material, the timing and conditions of its transportation, laboratory equipment and the precise execution of the research methodology for at least 3-5 days. Isolation of the culture of a number of pathogens (atypical intracellular microflora, anaerobic bacteria, mycobacterium tuberculosis) requires even more lengthy studies using special media and equipment. This article presents the results of a bacteriological study of pathogenic microflora in diseases of the respiratory system of the population of the Shcherbakty district of Pavlodar region for 2017-2019, including the following sequence: microscopy of native and Gram stained smears; inoculation of biological material on nutrient media for isolation and identification of the pathogen; determination of the sensitivity of the isolated microorganism to antibiotics; immunological (serological) research methods aimed at determining antigens of microbiological origin, as well as antibodies to them in the patient's body. It has been shown that conducting bacteriological studies in accordance with the requirements of regulatory documents allows obtaining reliable and comparable results necessary both for the optimal treatment of patients and for collecting and analyzing data on monitoring the emergence and spread of diseases of the respiratory system caused by pathogenic microflora.
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)

Research of fungal diseases of herbaceous plants exposed from Aksu Ferroalloy Plant
Annotation: Main problem: Technogenic "metamorphosis" of vegetation near such large industrial facilities as Pavlodar is considered to be the result of various active chemical and mechanical factors provoked by economic activities associated with the influence of emissions from industrial companies. The effect of anthropogenic impacts on vegetation in all regions of Kazakhstan varies and is largely dependent on the economic development of the territory, but in any case, the end result of this impact is the change in the vegetation, causing violations of with structure, reduced vodorazdelnaya flora and productivity of communities. This, in turn, can cause infection of herbaceous plants with pathogenic fungi, which then carry with them: a decrease in the intensity of plant growth, a deterioration in their decorative qualities, a decrease in the survival of the biological species. Purpose: to study the types of fungi-pathogens of phytopathogenic diseases and to determine the degree of modification of the plant component, which is under intense negative technogenic influence from the Aksu Ferroalloy Plant (AFР). Мethods: For the experimental study, species of plants such as: Artemisia dracunculus L; Artemesia vulgaris L; Atriplex fera L; Atriplex patula L; Artemisia annua L were selected for the content of fungipathogens of phytopathogenic diseases. Results and their significance: This experimental study was aimed at the presence of fungi-pathogens of herbaceous plants as a result of human impact, occurring near the industrial zone "AFР". The composition of fungi-pathogens of herbaceous plants collected in this industrial zone was considered and studied. According to the results of an experimental laboratory study, phytopathogenic fungi of herbaceous plants belonging to 1 ordo, 1 familia, and 4 species were found.
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)

Prospects for the use of natural food additives in the production of sausage products
Annotation: Today, there is a full development of the food industry. It is characterized by the widest mechanization and automation of production and transport processes, the use of artificial cold and vacuum technology, the latest physical methods, chemical and biological preparations to accelerate technological processes. There are a huge variety of new products. New ways of long-term preservation of products in hermetic airtight packaging are promising. Now it is possible to deliver products from almost any industry to anywhere in the world. But the main problem for the modern consumer is that today's food industry is moving by leaps and bounds in the application and addition of chemical food additives: preservatives, flavors, dyes, stabilizers, antioxidants and substitutes for raw materials. To correctly answer the question of how to treat the use of food with food additives, it is necessary to understand and weigh the main disadvantages and advantages of using them. Advantages are that the product is better preserved, has an attractive appearance. Disadvantages are that the human body wears out, processing various chemicals, it is harmful to health. And with certain doses of use it becomes dangerous. Everyone has their own attitude to their health and their own priorities in life. Many people have come to terms with the daily use of products with additives, but others consciously refuse almost everything in the store. But the fact that no one wants to be poisoned from an overdose of various chemicals or starve to death. Therefore, the main advice is to carefully study the composition indicated on the label of food products and know the measure of their consumption. It is also impossible to believe blindly that the label was written with the truth. Manufacturers often use additives literally visually, which can lead to the production of a product with a dangerously higher concentration. It also happens that the manufacturer intentionally exceeds the norm in order to hide the shortcomings of the product (stale, poor quality of raw materials) and increase the yield of the finished product. The food additives added to many foods (usually designated by the code E) are predominantly harmful to the body. With moderate consumption, the use of products with E-supplements is not too harmful to the body (for example, several times a month). The situation is dangerous when a person consumes products with a large number of food additives daily or even several times a day when using various products. Nowadays, there are several hundred food additives with the code E (from E100 to E1521).
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)

Methods for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions in steam generators of thermal power plants
Annotation: One of the agent modern tasks is to ensure the cleanliness of the air basin. To ensure this, it is necessary to clean the combustion products of the fuel removed from the boilers after their cooling into the atmosphere from harmful substances, including nitrogen oxide.
Author: А.P. Plevako
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)

Principles of using ornamental motifs to create a collection of modern youth clothing
Annotation: The main problem of the article discusses the methods of developing a collection of casual clothing with elements of ethnic style, using the example of innovative technologies in the field of creating ornaments for clothing. Factors of formation of ornaments based on the structure of the human body are justified. The author considers the factors of shaping, based on special visual features of clothing in connection with ergonomic factors. Study of the specifics of ornamental motifs to transform them into a component of modern youth clothing. The authors of the article monitored the environmental approach, that is, the acquisition of knowledge about cultural values based on the selection of all the best that was created by the people, introduction to cultural folk traditions, dialogue between man and culture. When writing the article, we used author's and experimental research methods, fixing information in tables and author's sketches. The study of categories and definitions was carried out by the method of selecting and classifying information, as well as its analysis. Comparative analysis of forms of traditional and modern culture, study of bibliographies on architecture, art, philosophy, psychology; analysis of materials of scientific monographs, abstracts and dissertations, articles, creative essays of masters of architecture and art, from the point of view of the concepts, principles, conceptual and terminological formulations contained in them. In addition, private scientific methods are used: analysis of literary sources to identify current trends in the formation of art. Аs the results of the research, a collection has been developed that considers various types of clothing decoration, uses methods for including ornaments in the structural structure of the costume and provides models, calculations and drawings. The author's collection justifies the use of ornaments in connection with the selected artistic and figurative task of the collection, as well as in connection with its functional purpose. All these factors are formative. And the practical experience of this research shows the relevance of this topic in connection with the need not only to promote the historical achievements of Kazakhstan's culture to the masses and popularize them, but also as a method that helps to understand the possibilities of its translation into modern design objects. Keywords: ornament, youth, model, collection, Kazakhstan.
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)

Application of intelligent transport systems on the roads of Кazakhstan
Annotation: The progress of work on the creation of an "intelligent transport system" in Kazakhstan, the development and modernization of the road industry will be reported. The economic and social effectiveness of several transport corridors and new projects were analyzed. Transport corridors of foreign countries, methods of providing logistics services were presented. In his address, the head of state paid special attention to the issues of digitalization of all spheres of life of the population, including the transport sector of Kazakhstan. Currently, the Ministry of investment and development of the Republic of Kazakhstan is working on the creation of an "intelligent transport system" within the framework of the state program «Digital Kazakhstan» (ITS). ITS goal is to systematically integrate transport infrastructure, transport devices and users with modern information and communication technologies aimed at improving the safety and efficiency of the transport process. The concept will include 11 components in ITS. One of them is a special automated measuring instruments (UAVs), which are installed in the main automobile corridors. This device is designed to measure moving vehicles without contact and eliminate unjustified stops. This year, it is planned to put into operation 10 units of RSPP, and by 2020 it is planned to increase their number to 46 units. It is also planned to introduce a traffic management system that will inform drivers about the situation on the roads, a system for forecasting and analyzing climatic conditions, which is carried out through a network of weather stations along the roads, a network of video monitoring and special video cameras for detecting traffic violations, toll road systems that cover the cost of maintenance of the national road network, etc. They will be introduced in stages until 2021. The implementation of this project will reduce road deaths, increase the volume of transit traffic and the speed of logistics services, fully cover the main highways with measuring instruments and create favorable conditions for drivers on the roads. Such systems are already operating in South Korea, Japan, Australia, Europe and the United States.
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)

Accounting information when calculating the cost of production of an industrial enterprise as an element of cost management
Annotation: The data of calculating the actual cost of production are widely used in production management at industrial enterprises, to monitor compliance with the standard cost of production adopted by the enterprise, to identify ways to optimize labor costs and material resources. The level of cost depends on the activity of an industrial enterprise in a market economy: the amount of profitability, the economic efficiency of its activities. The choice of the method of cost accounting and calculating the cost of production depends on the specifics of the technology and organization of production, as well as the requirements of the efficiency of enterprise management. Studying the formation of accounting information when calculating the cost of production by type of product, comparing the level of costs with the revenue received makes it possible to determine the economic efficiency of production. The purpose of this study is to identify the problems of forming accounting information when calculating the cost of production for making decisions to reduce costs. The implementation of the research goal is facilitated by the use of methods of comparative analysis, synthesis, and graphical method for visualizing the results obtained. When considering the cost calculation, attention is paid to the fact that in market conditions there is a need for detailed cost accounting and calculation of the cost of production. If we take into account that in market conditions, prices for products are formed as demand increases, and demand is influenced by external factors, then we can only influence the costs based on the cost calculation. The basis for making effective management decisions will depend on how reliable and to what extent the accounting information is formed. Costs are the main constraint on the profit of industrial enterprises, since the main strategic goal of any enterprise is the mechanism for increasing profits. The ability to achieve this goal is limited by the following internal factors: the complexity of the cost grouping, technological processes, and the impact on product quality. It is necessary to improve the information system, which is based on the data of primary documents, document flow and the order of cost grouping. The proposed measures will contribute to strengthening the control function of the management and, as a result, effective cost management.
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)

Evaluation of regional competitiveness in economic conditions of Kazakhstan
Annotation: Main problem: Issues of evaluating regional competitiveness, search for competitive territories’ advantages, especially by improving human resources’ quality, remain insufficiently studied. In this regard, in article it is presented existing models for evaluating regional competitiveness in Kazakhstan economy. In addition, in article authors carried out regional classification according to analysis of main socio-economic indicators of Kazakhstan regions, originating in Concept of regional policy. Authors calculated main indicators of Kazakhstan regions’ competitiveness with aim of determining level of region’s competitiveness in comparative perspective. Purpose: Purpose of the research is comparative analysis and evaluation of the competitiveness of Kazakhstan’s regions in modern conditions. Methods: The article uses rating model for evaluating competitiveness of Kazakhstan’s regions based on indices, developed by Agency for research on investment profitability, operating at National chamber of Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan (rating of competitiveness of Kazakhstan’s regions). Results and their value: Value of the paper considered in that classification of regions is carried out according to analysis of main socio-economic indicators of Kazakhstan regions, which originates in Concept of regional policy. The authors also calculated main indicators of competitiveness index of Kazakhstan regions according to National chamber of Entrepreneurs of Kazakhstan in order to determine the specifics of regions and identify directions for developing regional strategies. Based on results of the study, analysis was carried out that allowed to reveal strengths and weaknesses of regions of Kazakhstan. It is emphasized that a high level of regional competitiveness cannot be achieved without development of human resources and their rational use. In general, directions of regional policy are determined by chosen development scenario. The approach proposed by authors to methodology for evaluating regional competitiveness has a number of advantages - it reflects the specifics of regions, allows seeing the nearest competitors and determining directions of the region’s development strategy.
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)

The main directions of economic development of the region through the prism of the impact of the coronavirus pandemic
Annotation: The COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic has brought about a new economic reality, to which every economic entity must adapt, regardless of the scale: within a region, a country, or the whole world. The article examines the regional economic mechanism in the context of the pandemic in the context of the interaction of the market mechanism of self-development and the control influence of the regional authorities. The destabilization of the economic situation in the regions as a result of the pandemic and related restrictions poses the problem of revising the main directions of regional policy To achieve the set goals and objectives, the general methods of empirical and theoretical research were used: analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, generalization, description. Three spheres play a key role in the economy of Pavlodar region: industry, trade and transport. Just how to remain positive dynamics in terms of industrial production and maintained the services will depend on the development of the region, the main indicators which are discussed in this article through the prism of the events in the context of the pandemic. The necessary health measures taken in response to the pandemic have led to a severe reduction in mobility and are accompanied by high economic costs. The quarantine measures have had a direct impact on businesses, especially microbusinesses. To support this sector, tax incentives were provided, lending was expanded, and measures were taken to further facilitate the business environment. The article reflects only a small list of issues that required changes in the economic mechanism in the context of the pandemic and the introduction of restrictive measures, as well as the strengthening of the influence of external control on the economy. At the same time, the state as whole and individual regions, taking into account their potential and the actual situation in the economy, need to find an optimal balance between the prohibitions and restrictions imposed to ensure the safety of human health and the preservation of the economy in a functional mode, work and income of employees. This problem of finding a balance between prohibitive and permissive measures requires further analysis. At the same time, the state needs to develop and apply tools of a systematic nature, focused on the long term.
Author: Z.A. Arynova
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)

Tactical features of the use of special expertise in the investigation of human trafficking
Annotation: Main problem: This study is devoted to the study of the problems of using special expertise in the investigation of crimes related to human trafficking. The use of specialized expertise is an integral element in the system of investigative actions carried out in cases of human trafficking. In this study, the authors consider the features of the production of forensic examinations in the investigation of crimes related to human trafficking in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In the study, the authors consider the most typical types of forensic examinations that are conducted in criminal cases of human trafficking. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, as well as the survey of practitioners engaged in the fight against human trafficking and the analysis of criminal cases of human trafficking, practical recommendations for criminal prosecution authorities on the most effective conduct of forensic examinations in criminal cases of this category are proposed. The purpose of this study: to study the tactical features of the production of forensic examinations in the investigation of human trafficking, as well as the features of the use of special expertise. Methods: The methodological basis of this study is the dialectical method of cognition of social and legal phenomena, as well as system-structural, comparative-legal, logical-theoretical and private scientific methods of study. To achieve the objectivity of the research results, these methods were applied comprehensively. Results and their significance: The use of forensic expertise in the investigation of human trafficking is essential for the detection and investigation of these crimes. The study notes that the following types of forensic examinations are among the most common in the investigation of this category of criminal cases: medical examination, biological examination, handwriting examination, phonoscopic examination and odorological examination. The subject of the investigation must carefully understand the tactical features of the production of certain forensic examinations. The practical recommendations proposed by the authors of the study on the appointment and production of forensic examinations considered in the study are important for the successful investigation of the facts of human trafficking, but at the same time they have a recommendatory value and can be modified taking into account the specifics of a particular criminal case.
Year of release: 2021
Number of the journal: 1(81)
Heading: Law